On 19 August 2002, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals gave the latest guidance in the long-running dispute regarding the scope of the Federal Arbitration Act’s (FAA) in the case, Bernadean Rittmann v. Amazon.com, Inc., et al, Case No. 19-35381. This case relates to 'last mile' delivery drivers working through Amazon’s app-based delivery program, Amazon Flex (AmFlex), who would sometimes cross state lines but completed most of their deliveries within the state borders. The Ninth Circuit allowed these Amazon delivery drivers to proceed with a nationwide class-action suit, in place of arbitration, as it found that they fall under the 'transportation worker' exemption of the FAA on account of their engagement in interstate commerce.
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