Gregorio Billikopf is an emeritus Labor Management Farm Advisor with the University of California and a visiting professor of the Universidad de Chile. His research and teaching efforts have focused on organizational productivity (selection, compensation, performance appraisal, discipline and termination, supervision) and interpersonal relations (interpersonal negotiation, conflict resolution, and mediation).
Contact Gregorio Billikopf
Party-Directed Mediation. Another Step Towards Non-Directive Mediation
The contribution of two models is presented in this article, Party-Directed Mediation (PDM) and Negotiated Performance Appraisal (NPA) to deal with peer mediation and hierarchical mediation, respectively. Both models are especially useful for dealing with deep seated interpersonal conflict. Originally, they were used as organizational mediation models.
Without Compulsion: Teaching Mediators Empathy
When we are in conflict, our counterparts become our enemies. We block positive feelings we may have about them. We may try and bravely think of something good to say, but emotional leakage gives away the pain we are feeling. It is difficult to move our counterpart out of the enemy camp, and even more difficult to say something positive about him or her.
Party-Directed Mediation: Book Download
The third edition of Party-Directed Mediation: Facilitating Dialogue between Individuals is now on-line as a free PDF download. This controversial book explains two mediation models in depth.
We must first recognize our error before we can make things right. While never easy, it is even harder when such recognition requires a public acknowledgement—an apology—to those we have injured. A true apology requires a great deal of humility and includes a sincere expression of regret, changed behavior and, when possible, restitution.
Gender and Culture Communication Differences
In my seminars on interpersonal negotiation skills, communication, conflict management and mediation skills, we often speak about cultural and gender differences. Do Hispanics really make less eye contact than non-Hispanics? Do men or women expect or require more eye contact as a general rule? Do men touch women more than women touch men in casual conversation? Proxemics (personal space), haptics (touch), and kinesics (body and face) are names given for studies in these topics that attempt to answer such questions.
Reducing Defensiveness - Video
This presentation introduces four specific steps for effectively transforming even the most provocative personal attacks into something constructive. Listeners may wish to also read Chapter 4 of Party-Directed Mediation, Interpersonal Negotiation Skills. April 2012, Duration: about 10 minutes plus homework.
Receiving Criticism Without Defensiveness
There are untold ways that people show disapproval. Some may raise their voices, others roll their eyes, and yet others use sarcasm. From bouts of anger to withdrawal and pouting, this list is indeed long. How do we react when we are the object of someone’s reproach? Do we become defensive? I would venture to say that we are most likely to feel self-protective when the person who is showing his or her disapprobation is someone we care about.
Free Book on Workplace Mediation as Public Service by the University of California
Mediators, human resource managers and other interested individuals may obtain a free copy of the 321 page book Party-Directed Mediation by Gregorio Billikopf. The focus of the publication is on the mediation of deep-seated interpersonal conflict, so the book may also be of interest to attorneys and therapists.
From Gregorio Billikopf
Mediate.com is the GO-TO place for mediators to exchange ideas and make
Empathic Listening: Listening First Aid
Effective listening skills can help a person who is suffering
from deep emotional wounds, or involved in a serious interpersonal conflict, to vent.
Listening skills, on the
part of a helper, permit such a person to think more clearly and be more receptive to
Party-Directed Mediation: Pre-Caucus Empowers Party-Directed Joint Session
In this article, Billikopf and Linden talk about Party-Directed Mediation, give examples of where the technique is used, discuss the types of cases that seem to be most amenable to the use of this approach, and finally, discuss where the style can be of greater use to mediators.
Contributions of Caucusing and Pre-Caucusing to Mediation
The author argues that pre-caucusing—a separate meeting between the mediator and each of the stakeholders before they are ever brought together into a joint session—can not only overcome many of the negatives often associated with caucusing, but has the potential of becoming a pillar of conflict management. Pre-caucusing affords stakeholders the opportunity to vent and be heard at a critical time in the mediation process, when it can reduce defensiveness and increase creativity. Once in the joint session, stakeholders communicate with each other with less mediator interference.
Here is an attempt to sort out a couple of thoughts on cultural
differences. My perspective is that of a foreign born-and-raised Hispanic
who has now lived over two decades in the United States and has had much
opportunity for international travel and exchange.